We are committed to promoting the principles and practices of open science with a view to improving the quality, capacity for renewal and social impact of science. Our goal is to make the outputs produced and used in research (especially publications, research data and methods) and their metadata quickly and widely available for reuse. Implementing the goals of open science is also part of the work to support responsible research. The principles of open science must be pursued with due attention to good scientific practice and law. Open science and research is an essential element of research expertise. Openness also promotes the societal impact of science and research.
We require that the scientific publications on the results of Academy-funded research projects are open access, and that the research data produced by the projects are made widely available. The degrees of data openness may justifiably vary, ranging from fully open to strictly confidential.
Scientific publications and research data produced with our funding or by using research infrastructures we fund must always indicate that the research has been conducted with funding from the Academy of Finland. Our grant number(s) must also be mentioned. If the publication or data are electronic, the acknowledgement must be included in the metadata.
Open access to scientific publications
We require that the projects we fund commit to open access scientific publishing. The requirement applies to all publications produced as a result of Academy-funded research projects. It particularly applies to peer-reviewed articles, but we also recommend open access for other types of publications.
Scientific articles can be published following either green, gold or hybrid open access.
Gold open access means that a publication is immediately provided in open access mode through a high-quality open access publication channel, that is, an open access journal. In this case, the publisher is responsible for providing the article in open access mode immediately. The publisher may charge an open access fee (article processing charge). This fee may be included in the research costs of the project.
Hybrid open access publishing is also allowed. This means that the author pays a fee (article processing charge) determined by the publisher to make the article freely available. Otherwise the journal is only available to readers who have paid a subscription fee. The Academy wants to emphasise that because it is expensive and liable to malpractice, hybrid open access is only a temporary solution and part of the transition towards full open access publishing.
Green open access means that researchers publish their articles in traditional subscription-based scientific journals and store parallel copies of the articles in machine-readable format in online open access repositories or databases. We allow for an embargo period following the practices of international funders. The embargo is usually no more than six months, except in the humanities and social sciences where it is no more than twelve months. We encourage researchers to store the final, peer-reviewed and edited version of their articles. If this is not possible due to the publishing contract, the articles may be stored as pre-print manuscripts.
If the project uses the gold publishing route, Academy funding can be used to cover research costs related to open access. Academy research funding may also be used to cover costs of a hybrid publication.
The Academy is part of cOAlition S, an international consortium of research funders that promotes open access to research publications in accordance with the Plan S initiative. The principles and practices presented by Plan S:n will be introduced in calls for applications to be opened after 1 January 2021, so they will not apply to calls in 2020 or to funding decisions made earlier. The Plan S-compliant publishing practices, introduced by 1 January 2021, will be published in 2020. Follow the progress of Plan S on the cOAlition S website.
Data management and openness
We require that the principal investigators of Academy-funded research projects see to that the projects’ data are stored and made available through major national or international archives or storage services that are important for their research organisation or scientific field. The degrees of data openness may justifiably vary, ranging from fully open to strictly confidential. The research project concerned and the publisher of the data must ensure that publishing the data will not be in breach of the Finnish Act on the Openness of Government Activities, the Finnish Personal Data Act or the Finnish Copyright Act. When making data openly available, the parties involves must also consider licensing issues.
Research data must be made freely available as soon as possible after the research results have been published. Sites of research must therefore provide researchers with the necessary guidance and ensure that they have access to suitable storage infrastructure as early as possible.
If the research data cannot be made openly available, the metadata must be stored in a Finnish or international data finder.
The costs associated with storing and sharing research data and material are regarded as overheads for the project’s host organisation, but they may also be legitimately accepted as research costs to be covered with Academy research funding.
Data management, listing and archiving services are provided by, for instance:
- the Finnish Social Science Data Archive (FSD), which also accepts data from the humanities and health sciences, for instance
- FIN-CLARIN (language resources)
- CSC’s FAIRDATA services and the AVAA open research data portal
- CERN’s Zenodo service
- the EUDAT data infrastructure.