The Academy of Finland is committed to promoting the principles and practice of open science to improve the quality, responsibility, and social impact of science. The goal is to make all the output produced and used in research (research publications, data, methods) and their metadata widely available for reuse. The principles of open science must be pursued with due attention to good scientific practice and law.
We require that Academy-funded projects see to that the scientific publications in which the project’s results are published are open-access, and that the projects’ data are made widely available. The degrees of data openness may justifiably vary, ranging from fully open to strictly confidential.
Scientific publications and research data produced with funding from the Academy of Finland or by using Academy-funded research infrastructures must always indicate that the research has been conducted with funding from the Academy of Finland. The Academy’s grant number(s) must also be mentioned. If the publication or data are electronic, the grant number(s) must be included in the metadata.
Open access: publication plan
The applicant’s research plan should include a publication plan that has been drafted considering the Academy of Finland’s open access requirement. The requirement particularly concerns peer-reviewed articles, but the Academy also recommends open access for other types of publications.
Scientific articles can be published following either green, gold or hybrid open access.
If the project uses the gold publishing route, Academy funding can be used to cover research costs related to open access. Academy research funding may also be used to cover costs of a hybrid publication.
Green open access means that researchers publish their articles in traditional subscription-based scientific journals and store parallel copies of the articles in machine-readable format in online open access repositories or databases. The Academy allows for an embargo period following the practices of international funders. The embargo is usually no more than six months, except in the humanities and social sciences where it is no more than twelve months. We encourage researchers to store the final, peer-reviewed and edited version of their articles. If this is not possible due to the publishing contract, the articles may be stored as pre-print manuscripts.
Gold open access means that a publication is immediately provided in open access mode through a high-quality open access publication channel, that is, an open access journal. In this case, the publisher is responsible for providing the article in open access mode immediately. The publisher may charge an open access fee (article processing charge). This fee may be included in the research costs of the project.
Hybrid open access publishing is also allowed. This means that the author pays a fee (article processing charge) determined by the publisher to make the article freely available. Otherwise the journal is only available to readers who have paid the subscription fee. The Academy wants to emphasise that because it is expensive and liable to malpractice, hybrid open access is only a temporary solution and part of the transition towards full open access publishing.
The Academy is a part of cOAlition S, an international consortium of research funders which promotes open access to research publications in accordance with the Plan S initiative. As of yet, the principles and practices of Plan S do not apply to the calls that are currently open, but they are in the process of being implemented.
Open data: data management plan
The Academy of Finland requires that the principal investigators of Academy-funded research projects see to that the projects’ data are stored and made available through major national or international archives or storage services that are important for their research organisation or scientific field. The degrees of data openness may justifiably vary, ranging from fully open to strictly confidential. The research project concerned and the publisher of the data must ensure that publishing the data will not be in breach of the Finnish Act on the Openness of Government Activities, the Finnish Personal Data Act or the Finnish Copyright Act. When making data openly available, the parties involves must also consider licensing issues.
Research data must be made freely available as soon as possible after the research results have been published. Sites of research must therefore provide researchers with the necessary guidance and ensure that they have access to suitable storage infrastructure as early as possible.
If the research data cannot be made openly available, the metadata must be stored in a Finnish or international data finder.
The costs associated with storing and sharing research data are regarded as overheads for the project’s host organisation, but they may also be legitimately accepted as research costs to be covered with Academy research funding.
Data management, listing and archiving services are provided by, for instance:
- The Finnish Social Science Data Archive FSD which also accepts data from other fields, such as the humanities and health sciences
- FIN-CLARIN consortium (language resources)
- CSC – IT Center for Science’s FAIRDATA and AVAA services
- CERN’s Zenodo service
- EUDAT data infrastructure for all scientific fields.
The Academy of Finland requires that applications to be submitted to the Academy include a data management plan for the research project or research infrastructure concerned. The data management plan is appended to the application as a separate appendix.