There are four research councils at the Academy of Finland. They each carry out the Academy's tasks within their respective field.
- Research Council for Biosciences and Environment
- Research Council for Culture and Society
- Research Council for Natural Sciences and Engineering
- Research Council for Health
The Finnish Government appoints a chair and a maximum of ten members for each research council for a three-year term. Care is taken to ensure that the research councils represent versatile scientific expertise of a high standard.
Before appointing the members, the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture hears universities, government research institutes, public authorities and corporate bodies representing research and development, as well as major scientific societies and science academies.